The oldest hominid discovered to date in Ethiopia is the 4.2 million year old Ardipithicus ramidus (Ardi) found by Tim D. White in 1994.The most well known hominid discovery is Lucy, found in the Awash Valley of Ethiopia’s Afar region in 1974 by Donald Johanson, and is one of the most complete and best preserved, adult Australopithecine fossils ever uncovered. Lucy’s taxonomic name, Australopithecus afarensis, means ‘southern ape of Afar’, and refers to the Ethiopian region where the discovery was made. Lucy is estimated to have lived 3.2 million years ago. Near Gona stone tools were uncovered in 1992 that were 2.52 million years old, these are the oldest such tools ever discovered anywhere in the world.In 2010 fossilised animal bones, that were 3.4 million years old, were found with stone-tool-inflicted marks on them in the Lower Awash Valley which is the oldest evidence of stone tool use ever found anywhere in the world.Stone-Age rock paintings have survived in places like Dire Dawa and Cascase in Eritrea.Tools have been unearthed at several sites,like Melka kunture near Addis Ababa. Ethiopia, is widely considered the site of the emergence of early Homo sapiens in the Middle Paleolithic. In 2004 fossils found near the Omo river at Kibbish by Richard Leakey in 1967 were redated to 195,000 years old, the oldest date anywhere in the world for modern Homo Sapiens. Homo sapiens idaltu, found in the Middle Awash in Ethiopia in 1997, lived about 160,000 years ago.

The earliest records of Ethiopia appear in Ancient Egypt, during the Old Kingdom period. Egyptian traders from about 3000 BC onward who refer to lands south of Nubia or Kush as Punt and Yam. Trade relationship through overland trade down the Nile and its tributaries .The first known voyage to Punt occurred in the 25th century BC under the reign of PharaohSahure. The most famous expedition to Punt, however, comes during the reign of Queen Hatshepsut probably around 1495 BC.

D’mt:-There is some confusion over the usage of the word Ethiopia in ancient times and the modern country.For example, many ancient maps of Africa, which appeared approximately at the time of the European Age of Discovery, named the continent of Africa as Aethiopia, also naming what we now call the Atlantic Ocean, as Oceanus Aethopicus.Ancient Greeks historians such as Herodotus and Diodorus Siculus used the word Aethiopia (Αιθιοπία) to refer to the peoples living immediately to the south of ancient Egypt. specifically the area now known as the ancient Kingdom of Kush, now a part of modern Nubia in Egypt and Sudan, as well as all of Sub-Saharan Africa in general. Temple at Yeha, possible capital of D’mt.

The great power to rise in Ethiopia was that of Axum in the 1st century AD. The Kingdom of Aksum designated as Ethiopia dates only as far back as the first half of 4th century following the 4th centur. Earlier inscription of Ezana Habashat (the source for “Abyssinia”) in Ge’ez, South Arabian alphabet, was then translated in Greek as “Aethiopia”.The state of Sheba /Ebn Melek or Emperor Menelik I. (Ethiosemitic:tabot) the e Church of Lady Mary of Zion in Axum.

Middle Ages ( Zagwe dynasty) :-About 1000 or most probably in c 960), a non-Christian princess, Yodit (“Gudit”, a play on Yodit meaning evil), conspired to murder all the members of the royal family and establish herself as ruler. At one point during the next century, the last of Yodit’s successors were overthrown by an Agaw lord named Mara Takla Haymanot, who founded the Zagwe dynasty.

Ethiopia and the Crusades:( 1187 )

Early Solomonic period (1270-1529)

The Abyssinian-Adal War (1529-1543)

Early Gondar period (1632-1769)

Modern 1855-1936

Under the Emperors Tewodros II (1855–1868), Yohannes IV (1872–1889), and Menelek II (1889–1913), the empire began to emerge from its isolation. Under Emperor Tewodros II, the “Age of the Princes” (Zemene Mesafint) was brought to an end.

Tewodros II and Tekle Giyorgis II (1855-1872)

Yohannes IV (1872-1889)

Menelik II (1889-1913)

Iyasu V,Zauditu and Haile Selassie (1913-1936)

Italian period (1936-1941)

Post–World War II period under Haile Selassie (1941-1974)

Communist period (The Derg) (1974-1991)

The Federal Democratic Republic (1991-present)